PM KiddieCal: Yummy Calcium, Vitamin D Supplement
During and even before pregnancy, it is recommended that women maximize nutrition in order to be able to supply the developing fetus with the necessary nutrients for optimal growth and development. Specifically for bone health and development of the musculoskeletal system, enhancing essential mineral levels such as calcium is important for women as a deficiency may lead to maternal losses. The flow on effect to the baby may be evident at birth of early development as it also results in thin brittle bones and neurodevelopmental deficits.
After birth, the diet of a newborn for the first six months consists of breast milk rich in carbohydrates, proteins, fats and essential minerals. Importantly for bone growth, calcium, phosphorous, vitamin K and some vitamin D are present. However, the levels of these nutrients that the newborn receives is dependent on the breastfeeding mother, therefore it is crucial that pregnant and breastfeeding women are also supplemented to achieve optimal nutrient levels. Calcium levels are tightly regulated within the body and any drop in blood calcium will inevitably result in calcium resorption and loss from bone.
Musculoskeletal Development and Health Bone Formation
During the early years of development, children grow at a great rate, almost doubling in height in the first 3 years. Such significant growth requires large amounts of essential nutrients particularly for bone growth and development, to allow them to grow big and strong. Development of the musculosketal system in the early years of life can help children not only grow bigger, but enhance coordination, strength and agility. Whilst the motor pathways of movement are being established between the brain and the muscles themselves, it is important to have optimal levels of calcium as it is the main neurotransmitter that initiates muscle contraction and relaxation. In addition to this fundamental function, calcium is also required by cardiac muscle for its optimal contractility. Hypocalcaemia is detrimental to the heart and may result in arrhythmias.
Older kids require additional nutritional support particularly during puberty as the body again has a significant rapid growth period. Bone and muscle growth are increased due to stimulation by sex steroids. During this time, many teenagers can become significantly tired and fatigued which may not only effect their physical development, but then psychological health. The school years especially the final years of high school are all important to give teenagers the best chance at successfully making the transition to university and professional work. A nutritionally supported healthy child can make a significant difference in these crucial years.
Responsible for the close regulation of blood calcium levels, vitamin D deficiency also results in bone loss including osteomalacia and Rickets’s disease. Therefore it is imperative that vitamin D levels are sufficient to meet demands.
Postmenpausal Women and Osteoporosis
The oestrogen loss after the resolution of ovarian follicles during menopause significantly effects bone health. Calcium resorption and loss from bone leads to cortical bone thinning and clinically detectable osteoporosis. Subsequent to osteoporosis is an increased risk of pathological osteoporotic fractures, which can significantly effect mobility and contribute to morbidity, and also indirectly, mortality. For example, 25% of people die within a year following a hip fracture. Therefore, it is imperative that women, as well as men, are supplemented with calcium as they get older to prevent fractures and mobility loss.
What is Special About KiddieCal?
- Unique combination of vitamins and minerals to enhance calcium absorption and increase total body calcium, improving bone formation and strength
- Yummy strawberry milk shake chewable calcium formula using patented technology
- An excellent option for people who can’t swallow tablets and capsules, or who like to chew delicious calcium candies!
- Calcium is involved in the formation and strengthening of bones and tissues in users of all ages
- Adequate dietary calcium in our youth and throughout life is required to maximise bone health.
- Needed especially for growing children, pregnant and breastfeeding women, post menopausal women and sports people as they require additional calcium.
- Calcium is required for kids' skeletal and muscle development, teeth formation, and healthy nervous system.
- Containing Vitamin K1 and D3 to help increase calcium uptake and absorption.
- Aids, assists or helps in the maintenance or improvement of general well-being.
Each Soft Capsule Contains:
(*From Calcium Hydrogen Phosphate Anhydrous
|Cholecalciferol (Vit D3 5mcg)
|Phytomenadione (Vit K1)
Calcium is an essential nutrient for development and growth of the skeletal system, as well as being important for skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and neural conductivity. During early childhood development, the rapidly growing child requires sufficient calcium supply for bone deposition and ossification. While calcium intake plays an important role in prevention of several chronic diseases, children’s dietary intakes fall short of current adequate intake calcium recommendations . Calcium supplementation in children has been shown to significantly improve bone mineral content , aiming to maximize bone health. During puberty, calcium requirements are further increased to meet the demands of the growing skeleton.
Maternal supplementation is also crucial for the developing fetus and newborn during pregnancy and breastfeeding, as the levels of nutrients within maternal blood reflects those present in the transfer of nutrients to the baby in utero and postpartum through breastfeeding. Research shows that calcium supplementation during pregnancy is associated with higher bone mineral density (BMD) at the spine and whole body, and suppresses bone resorption in women with habitual low calcium intake . Also beneficial for pregnant women themselves, calcium has been shown to decrease blood pressure, particularly in those at high risk of pregnancy induced hypertension or preeclampsia .
For postmenopausal women, the declining levels of oestrogen predispose to calcium and bone loss. For the first 5 years after menopause, the rate of bone loss is 2-3 times that is experienced by men at the same age. Therefore it is necessary to supplement postmenopausal women with calcium to lessen the losses in order to prevent osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures . Calcium supplementation may also reduce the risk of developing osteomalacia and Rickets.
Phosphorus exists in the body as inorganic phosphate (PO4) required for the main molecular energy source ATP, and hydroxyapaptite which is the primary bone mineral consisting of calcium and phosphate. Therefore, phosphorous is required for many essential functions within the body including energy transfer, bone growth and strength.
Vitamin D is an essential fat soluble hormone obtained through sun exposure and diet, responsible for doubling calcium absorption in the small intestines. Metabolism of calcium is dependent on vitamin D levels. Vitamin D deficiency results in loss of calcaemic action, resulting in lowered ionized calcium levels, secondary hyperparathyroidism and hypophosphataemia. Adequate vitamin D intake is necessary for optimal calcium absorption, and an increased calcium requirement also necessitates the increase in Vitamin D intake. Vitamin D insufficiency is associated with increased risk of hip fractures [6-7]. Several randomized, controlled trials have shown that vitamin D supplementation, along with calcium, decreases bone loss and fracture incidence in the elderly [8-9].
Infants and children require a relatively high amount of vitamin D due to the high rate of skeletal growth. Breast fed infants are at risk because of low concentrations of vitamin D in human milk. Infants born in autumn at extreme latitudes are further at risk because they spend the first 6 months essentially indoors, having little chance to synthesize vitamin D in their skin. Furthermore, toddlers who aren't drinking much milk will also need Vitamin D supplements. Older children adolescents who don't get regular sun exposure, and who don't receive adequate amounts of vitamin D in their diet will also need extra Vitamin D.
Source: Linus Pauling Institute: http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/infocenter/vitamins/vitaminD/dendocrine.html
Vitamin K is another fat soluble vitamin which is best known for its role in the coagulation pathway, however it also plays a role in bone formation and strength. Vitamin K has a positive influence on calcium homeostasis. Studies show that a diet rich in vitamin K lowers excretion of calcium, or increased calcium retention . Elevated vitamin K status was also associated with more pronounced increase in bone mass in healthy peripubertal children . Whilst bone growth continues, the relative lack of vitamin K may lead to inferior bone quality and strength, or suboptimal bone mineralization resulting in increased fracture risk. Poor vitamin K status may be an independent risk factor for postmenopausal bone loss , therefore supplementation of vitamin K is important for maintaining bone integrity and strength.
- Merialdi, M., et al., Randomized controlled trial of prenatal zinc supplementation and fetal bone growth. Am J Clin Nutr, 2004. 79(5): p. 826-30.
- Winzenberg, T.M., et al., Calcium supplementation for improving bone mineral density in children. Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2006(2): p. CD005119.
- Igarashi, A. and M. Yamaguchi, Great increase in bone 66 kDa protein and osteocalcin at later stages with healing rat fractures: effect of zinc treatment. Int J Mol Med, 2003. 11(2): p. 223-8.
- Kulier, R., et al., Nutritional interventions for the prevention of maternal morbidity. Int J Gynaecol Obstet, 1998. 63(3): p. 231-46.
- Nordin, B.E., The effect of calcium supplementation on bone loss in 32 controlled trials in postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int, 2009. 20(12): p. 2135-43.
- Holick, M.F., Vitamin D and bone health. J Nutr, 1996. 126(4 Suppl): p. 1159S-64S.
- Sahota, O., et al., Vitamin D insufficiency increases bone turnover markers and enhances bone loss at the hip in patients with established vertebral osteoporosis. Clin Endocrinol (Oxf), 1999. 51(2): p. 217-21.
- Chapuy, M.C., et al., Combined calcium and vitamin D3 supplementation in elderly women: confirmation of reversal of secondary hyperparathyroidism and hip fracture risk: the Decalyos II study. Osteoporos Int, 2002. 13(3): p. 257-64.
- Dawson-Hughes, B., et al., Effect of calcium and vitamin D supplementation on bone density in men and women 65 years of age or older. N Engl J Med, 1997. 337(10): p. 670-6.